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Beats

 



 


It is almost impossible to tell beating from amplitude modulation by looking at the waveform, but they are fundamentally different processes, caused by different phenomena in machines. The spectrum tells the story.

 

This waveform looks like amplitude modulation, but is actually just two sine wave signals added together to form beats. Because the signals are slightly different in frequency, their relative phase varies from zero to 360 degrees, and this means the combined amplitude varies due to reinforcement and partial cancellation. The spectrum shows the frequency and amplitude of each component, and there are no sidebands present. In this example, the amplitudes of the two beating signals are different, causing incomplete cancellation at the null points between the maxima. Beating is a linear process -- no additional frequency components are created.

Electric motors often produce sound and vibration signatures that resemble beating, where the beat rate is at twice the slip frequency. This is not actually beating, but is in fact amplitude modulation of the vibration signature at twice the slip frequency. Probably it has been called beating because it sounds somewhat like the beats present in the sound of an out of tune musical instrument.

The following example of beats shows the combined waveform when the two beating signals are the same amplitude. At first glance, this looks like 100% amplitude modulation, but close inspection of the minimum amplitude area shows that the phase is reversed at that point.

 

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This looks like 100% amplitude modulation!

This example of beats is like the previous one, but the levels of the two signals are the same, and they cancel completely at the nulls. This complete cancellation is quite rare in actual signals encountered in rotating equipment.


 

Earlier we learned that beats and amplitude modulation produce similar waveforms. This is true, but there is a subtle difference. These waveforms are enlarged for clarity. Note that in the case of beats, there is a phase change at the point where cancellation is complete.





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